Pediatrics PICOT Questions Examples

The world of pediatric nursing is a dynamic one, constantly evolving with new advancements and ongoing needs for evidence-based practices. This article serves as your guide to crafting powerful research questions using the PICOT framework, specifically tailored to the unique aspects of pediatric care.

Here, we’ll jump into 20 evidence-based PICOT question examples that showcase its application in various pediatric nursing specialties. From pain management to chronic illness management, you’ll gain valuable insight into formulating research questions that address pressing issues and contribute to improved patient outcomes for our youngest patients.

10 Pediatrics PICOT Questions Examples

General Pediatrics PICOT Questions Examples

  1. P: In infants with fever (greater than 38°C) and no identifiable source (3-6 months old), I: does the use of a lukewarm bath (35-37°C) compared to no bath, C: reduce the time to fever reduction and improve comfort? O: within 30 minutes, as measured by tympanic temperature and parental report of comfort level. T: in a randomized controlled trial setting.
  2. P: For school-aged children (6-12 years old) experiencing anxiety before a medical procedure, I: does the use of virtual reality distraction therapy compared to standard distraction techniques (coloring books, storytelling), C: reduce pre-procedural anxiety levels? O: as measured by a validated anxiety scale and self-reported anxiety levels, T: in a single-blinded randomized controlled trial.

Chronic Conditions Pediatrics PICOT Questions Examples

  1. P: In children with Type 1 Diabetes (5-10 years old), I: does implementing a gamified mobile app for blood sugar monitoring compared to a traditional paper logbook, C: improve adherence to blood sugar monitoring and glycemic control? O: as measured by self-reported monitoring frequency and HbA1c levels, T: in a non-randomized controlled trial over a 3-month period.
  2. P: For adolescents (13-18 years old) with asthma, I: does a nurse-led education program on self-management techniques compared to a standard physician-led education session, C: improve medication adherence and reduce asthma exacerbation rates? O: as measured by self-reported medication adherence rates and hospital admission data, T: in a cohort study over a 1-year period.

Neonatal and Infant Health Pediatrics PICOT Questions Examples

  1. P: In preterm infants (born before 37 weeks gestation) with respiratory distress syndrome, I: does the use of kangaroo care (skin-to-skin contact) compared to standard incubator care, C: improve weight gain and promote neurodevelopment? O: as measured by weight gain velocity and Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development scores, T: in a randomized controlled trial.
  2. P: For mothers with newborns experiencing breastfeeding difficulties, I: does providing lactation consultation services compared to standard postpartum education, C: increase breastfeeding rates at 6 weeks postpartum? O: as measured by self-reported exclusive breastfeeding rates, T: in a prospective cohort study.

Mental Health Pediatrics PICOT Questions Examples

  1. P: In adolescents experiencing symptoms of depression (based on standardized screening tools), I: does participation in a mindfulness meditation program compared to a waitlist control group, C: reduce depressive symptoms and improve overall well-being? O: as measured by validated depression scales and self-reported well-being scores, T: in a randomized controlled trial over an 8-week period.
  2. P: For children diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), I: does the use of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in addition to medication compared to medication alone, C: improve behavior management and academic performance? O: as measured by standardized behavior rating scales and teacher reports, T: in a non-randomized controlled trial over a 6-month period.

Telehealth and Technology Pediatrics PICOT Questions Examples

  1. P: In children with chronic illnesses requiring regular medication administration (e.g., asthma, diabetes), I: does utilizing a telehealth platform for medication adherence support compared to traditional in-clinic appointments, C: maintain adherence rates and patient satisfaction? O: as measured by self-reported medication adherence rates and patient satisfaction surveys, T: in a retrospective cohort study over a 1-year period.
  2. P: For adolescents at risk for risky sexual behaviors (based on self-reported surveys), I: does participation in an anonymous online sexual health education program compared to standard printed educational materials, C: increase knowledge of safe sex practices and reduce risky sexual behaviors? O: as measured by self-reported knowledge scores and self-reported risky sexual behaviors, T: in a quasi-experimental study.

10 Evidence-Based Pediatric PICOT Question Examples

Here are 10 PICOT questions focused on evidence-based practices in pediatric nursing:

AreaP (Population)I (Intervention)C (Comparison)O (Outcome)T (Timeframe/Design)Evidence Source
Pain ManagementChildren (5-12 years) undergoing venipunctureLidocaine cream application (topical anesthetic) prior to insertionStandard care (no topical anesthetic)Reduced pain scores & improved procedural toleranceDuring procedure, randomized controlled trialCochrane Review, 2022
Chronic Illness ManagementAdolescents (13-18 years) with Type 1 DiabetesTelehealth interventions for medication adherence support (e.g., medication reminders, virtual consultations)Traditional in-clinic appointments for medication managementImproved medication adherence & glycemic control3 months, randomized controlled trialJournal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 2022
Mental HealthChildren with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)Mindfulness meditation techniquesStandard care (may include behavioral therapy or medication)Reduced anxiety & improved emotional regulation8 weeks, randomized controlled trialJournal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2022
Neonatal CarePreterm infants (born before 34 weeks gestation)Kangaroo care (skin-to-skin contact) compared to standard incubator careStandard incubator care aloneImproved weight gain, reduced stress levels, and enhanced parent-infant bondingFirst 6 weeks of life, randomized controlled trialJournal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 2021
Postpartum SupportMothers with newborns experiencing breastfeeding difficultiesLactation consultation services (in-person or telehealth)Standard postpartum education on breastfeedingIncreased breastfeeding duration & improved latch technique6 weeks postpartum, prospective cohort studyJournal of Human Lactation, 2022
Communication StrategiesChildren (3-7 years old) undergoing minor proceduresAge-appropriate communication techniques (e.g., simple explanations, using visual aids)Standard care (may not include detailed explanations)Reduced anxiety & improved cooperation during proceduresDuring procedure, observational studyJournal of Pediatric Health Care, 2021
Pain ManagementInfants (0-3 months old) undergoing circumcisionSucrose administration (sweet solution)No sucrose administrationReduced pain scores & crying durationDuring procedure, randomized controlled trialCochrane Review, 2020
Sleep ImprovementChildren (2-8 years old) with sleep disturbancesBehavioral sleep training interventions (e.g., graduated extinction)Standard care (may not include specific sleep strategies)Improved sleep duration & quality4-6 weeks, randomized controlled trialJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 2023
Vaccine EducationParents of children aged 6 months to 5 yearsEducational interventions promoting childhood vaccinationStandard vaccination information brochuresIncreased vaccination completion rates6 months following intervention, controlled trialPediatrics, 2022
Global HealthChildren in underserved communities (5-10 years old)Telehealth interventions for routine checkups and minor illness managementTraditional in-clinic appointments with limited accessImproved access to healthcare & reduced missed appointments1 year, retrospective cohort studyGlobal Health Sciences Quarterly, 2024

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